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History of Hmong people

Native Americans Origins News

Indian Country Today Media Network

New Discovery Confirms Native American Views on Their Ancestry

Native Americans from Mongolia?

Suab Hmong Broadcasting

IN THE USA: The month of MAY is Hmong Month and Hmong Day is May 14…it’s the day General Vang Pao and the first wave of Hmong fled Laos to Thailand as refugees when the LPDR took over Laos… This video show the reason why we, Hmong, are here in the USA and elsewhere beside Laos… PLEASE REMEMBER AND RESPECT OUR HMONG VETERAN HERE IN THE USA WHO PUT THEIR LIVES ON THE LINE TO GET US HERE… SALUTE TO ALL HMONG-LAO VETERAN!

A Doctor for Disease, a Shaman for the Soul

Idle No More marks one year since first national day of action

Idle No More’s first anniversary marked by native education protest

Link between Native Americans and Siberia encoded in DNA history

Process Profile: Andre Yang Discusses “Why I Feel the Way I Do About SB 1070″

“The Hmong are the Native Americans of Asia.”

Beginning Again: The Hmong and the United States

3 – Animal sacrifices and txiv neeb (zee neng) (like Native American), (healing), (appease dabs) (Steven Vang) (Mai Vang).

Gran Torino: Dining among the Hmong

“When the communist North prevailed in that conflict, the Hmong suffered much the same fate as the Native Americans who aided the British here in America in both the  Seven Years War and the War of 1812.”

The Hmong Religious Experience

Conflict – In her view, the Native Americans are capable of merging animism with Christianity, then so can the Hmong (7-10-95)!

Hmong Diet

Typical US Hmong Diet – Another example of a more recent assimilation of the Hmong culinary diets is the addition of a Native American Woodland plant called “Solomons seal”.

Scenes from the Hmong New Year’s Celebration

CHIBCHA – i have some hmong clothing and people see it on me and everyone sees it as being native american clothing, because i’m a native person, and i know the hmong people are indigenous people like me and i see many similarities in their culture, like their clothing, and their shamanism, and i love it!

Our Wartime Allies, The Hmong, Are Forcibly Being Repatriated They Rescued Our Air Crews And Fought Our Battles During The Vietnam War. Now, When They Need Us, We Are Sending Them Back To The Communists In Laos.

“It’s a hostile environment with no protection – similar to the reservations onto which Native Americans were driven.”

Hmong youth not preserving traditions, professor says

“Hmong traditions could end up forgotten, like some of the Native American tribal rituals, he added.”

Half Native, half Asian, all service to the people: A profile of Daniel Yang

Hill Tribes of Chiang Mai – Lisu, Hmong, and Karen in Northern Thailand

“The Northern Thailand administrative region is known for its population of native hill tribes which, much like the Native Americans of the United States, are an ethnic minority.”

Hmong Traditions: Understanding a Way of Life

INTRODUCTION – For instance, the Native Americans lost their land and dignity in this nation when the Europeans came over.

Studying shamanism in Uptown: an ethnographer among the Hmong

“For contrast, the film briefly depicts the struggle of Native Americans.”

Andre Yang

“Because Sherman Alexie recognizes that the Hmong are the Native Americans of Asia.”

Hmong Means Free?

“Likewise, the word “Indian” was given as a label for the Native-American because the early explorer got lost and thought that they had reached the East Indies.”

Native American & Hmong Indigenous Education Symposium

“Organizers of the 9th Annual Act 31: Widening the Circle Native American & Hmong Indigenous Education Symposium discuss the multicultural educational goals of the gathering, underway November 8-11,2012 in La Crosse.”

Shamans of the Hmong community

“The show’s theme was folk medicine, and it included a fascinating discussion with a Native American healer and an anthropologist.”

Mom Takes On Hmong Culture For Bone Marrow Donor For Son

I am not Hmong; And I don’t speak Spanish!

NurseWrachette – I am not Hmong but Native American.

Ojibwe Bibliography – part 1

“Hmong and native American culture and history report (Through the eyes of others) .”

WNPJ Steering Committee Meeting April 15, 2012 at Echo Valley Farm, Ontario, WI

Barb reminds us that Hmong and Native American students at UW-LaCrosse and UW Eau Claire organize a yearly conference in partnership with faculty, she recommended Groundwork as a contact, so they may be hearing from these students soon.”

Cultural Competence in Health Care

Alternate Healing Systems – Cultures differ considerably in their views about health and illness, and may have strong beliefs in alternate healing systems such as acupuncture among Chinese-Americans, Ayurvedic medicine among Asian-Indians, and religious/spiritual ceremonies among Hmong and Native American individuals.

Engaging the Underserved

Traditional and Spiritual Healers – The reliance on traditional and spiritual healing approaches was particularly prominent in Hmong and Native American communities.

Celebrating Diversity in Aging

“Experience aging in the Hmong and Native American cultures.”

The diversity of a diverse city

“Members of the Hiva Nui group were face to face with the other dancers representing Mexican Folklorico, Hmong, and Native American traditions, teaching them something from their culture and picking up something from the others.”

Hmong and Native-American

“I am Hmong and after reading the book, The Absolutely True Diary of a Part-Time Indian by _insert author name here_, I think the Hmong and the Native-Americans are similar.”

Day Of Mourning Statement From Leonard Peltier

Gang Members Stopped By Cops Before They Could Turn Hmong New Year Violent

Sarah Palin: “Thanksgiving is for Real Americans Not Indians”

Indigenous National Day Of Mourning: “We Are All Human Beings”

Thanksgiving: A National Day of Mourning for Indians

Native American Indian – Old Photos

Thanksgiving: Fact or Fiction?
by Jonathan Holmes

In the minds of many Americans, when asked the question, “When was the United States first settled?”, invariably the response will be, “in 1620 when the Pilgrims landed.” This so called “origin myth” has frequently been termed “the story of the first Thanksgiving” in many children’s books about the subject. However, beginning the story of America’s settlement with the Pilgrims at Plymouth Colony in 1620 leaves out not only the Native population, but also the Spanish, African and French as well. As a matter of fact, the very first non-Indian or non-Native settlers in this country know called the United States, were African slaves left in Georgia in 1526 by Spaniards who abandoned a settlement attempt. This settlement attempt, according to Jeannine Cook, in Columbus and the Land of Ayllón: The Exploration and Settlement of the Southeast published in 1992, took place in the summer of 1526. Approximately five hundred Spanish colonists and one hundred African slaves, and perhaps some free African colonists, under the command of Lucas Vázquez de Ayllón, founded a settlement in America called San Miguel de Gualdape. These colonists had sailed from the Caribbean island of Hispaniola in July 1526 aboard six ships. By August, they had landed at Winyah Bay on the mouth of the Pedee River, in what is now near present-day Georgetown in South Carolina. However, they failed to find a Native village, which they felt from past experience, would be necessary as a source for food until crops could be planted and harvested. Therefore, they sailed further southward. On what would later become the Georgia coast, Ayllón and his colonists found a village of Guale Natives and chose to settle nearby. Although physical remains of their settlement have not been found, historians and geographers have utilized surviving navigation logs and other records to reconstruct Ayllón’s 1526 voyage. Based on the latest research, the San Miguel de Gualdape settlement probably was situated on the mainland of what today is McIntosh County in Georgia, opposite Sapelo Sound. Disease and disputes with the local Guale Native village caused many deaths in the settlement, and finally in November 1526, the African slaves rebelled, killed some of their Spaniard masters, and escaped to live with the local Guale tribe. By now only 150 Spaniards survived, so they evacuated to the island of Haiti. The former slaves elected to remain behind. Consequently, the first non-Native settlers in this country we now know as the United States, were Africans. In 1564, approximately 250 French Protestants, also known as Huguenots and commanded by René Goulaine de Laudonniere, established a settlement on the St. John’s River near present-day Jacksonville, Florida. They called the settlement La Caroline. However, a year later in August 1565, some 600 Spanish soldiers and settlers under Don Pedro Menéndez de Avilés came ashore at the site of a Timucuan Native village in what is now northeastern Florida, and soon fortified the fledgling settlement of La Caroline and re-named it Saint Augustine. According to findings by Kathleen Teltsch, which were published in the New York Times in 1990 under the title, Scholars and Descendants Uncover Hidden Legacy of Jews in Southwest, when the long arm of the Spanish Inquisition established itself in Mexico City, some Spanish Jews, (called Sephardim in Hebrew, which were the descendants of Jews whose ancestors lived on the Iberian Peninsula), fled with Don Juan de Oñate in 1598 and established permanent settlements in what is today New Mexico and Colorado. In addition, beginning the origin story in 1620 at Plymouth, Massachusetts, omits recognition of the first British settlement in Jamestown, Virginia in 1607, and also omits the Dutch, who were living in a settlement in what is now Albany, New York by 1614. Just before the Pilgrims landed in what is now Massachusetts Bay, a process started in southern New England which would lay a foundation for the Plymouth Colony which was to come later. By 1617, British and French fishermen had been fishing off the Massachusetts coast for decades. After filling the hulls of the ships with Cod, they would go ashore to gather firewood and fresh water, and while ashore, often they would capture a few Natives to sell into slavery in Europe. It is now considered likely by many historians that these European fishermen transmitted some illness to the Native population. The Plague which started escalating in the southeastern coast of New England in 1617 made the European “Black Plague” of 1348-1350, which killed an estimated 30% of the population of Europe, pale by comparison. Some Historians theorize the New England Plague was Bubonic, others suggest it was Viral Hepatitis or Influenza. In any event, within three years the New England Plague had wiped out close to 96% of the Native population of coastal New England. Native tribal societies were devastated. During the next fifteen years additional epidemics, most of which we now know to have been Smallpox, struck Native Indian populations repeatedly. John Winthrop, who served as Governor of the Massachusetts Bay Colony at Plymouth beginning in 1629, called the Plague which struck the Native population, “miraculous.” According to R. C. Winthrop in Life and Letters of John Winthrop, 2 volumes, 1864–67, Gov. John Winthrop wrote a close friend in England in 1634 saying,

“But for the natives in these parts, God hath so pursued them, as for 300 miles space the greatest part of them are swept away by the Smallpox which still continues among them. So as God hath thereby cleared our title to this place, those who remain in these parts, being in all not 50, have put themselves under our protection…”

The result of the Plague of 1617, which is said to have reduced the coastal Native tribes from 30,000 to approximately 300, helped to prompt the myth of the legendary “warm reception” the Pilgrims enjoyed in 1620 from the Wampanoag Federation of Tribes. In actuality, Massasoit (born 1580 – died 1661) of the Pokanoket Tribe, and leader or Grand Sachem of the Wampanoag Federation, was eager to ally with the colonists that arrived in 1620 because the plague had so weakened his villages, that he feared the stronger Narragansett Federation of Tribes in Rhode Island and the Tarratine Federation of Tribes in Maine that would likely take advantage of the situation. Especially since war had broken out between the Tarratines and the Penobscots in 1615. When Nanapashamet, the Grand Sachem of the eleven villages of the Massachusett Federation of Tribes offered help to the Penobscots, the Tarratines of Maine hunted him down and killed him in 1619. The Massachusett Federation of Tribes, around what is now Boston Harbor, had been powerful enough to drive off Samuel de Champlain and his men when they tried to settle in Massachusetts in 1606. A year later in 1607, the Abenaki Tribes successfully expelled the first Plymouth Company settlement from the coast of Maine. However, by the time the Native populations of southeastern New England had replenished themselves to some degree, after so many being killed by Plagues in 1617, it was too late to expel the new European intruders which arrived in 1620.We need to keep in mind that there were only 35 Puritans, later known as Pilgrims, out of the 102 settlers on board the Mayflower. The other 67 persons on board were ordinary folk seeking their fortunes in the new Colony established at Jamestown, Virginia in 1607. Why the Mayflower never arrived in Virginia, but ended up in Massachusetts Bay, is still up to debate. The “origin myth” states that the Mayflower was blown off course. However, a great majority of Historians now believe that the Dutch bribed the Mayflower’s captain and part owner, Christopher Jones, to sail north so the Pilgrims would not settle near their settlement of New Amsterdam, which later became known as New York City. It is further believed by most historians that Massachusetts Bay was chosen as a good site for the Mayflower colonists because of the known absence of Natives, as a result of the Plague three years earlier in 1617, in addition to the good fishing known to be off Cape Cod. In fact, John Smith had studied the Massachusetts Bay area previously in 1614 and he published the result of his land and coastal survey in a guidebook called, A Description of New England printed in London in 1616. The guidebook included a map drawn by Smith himself, of the land he named New England. A guidebook one of the 35 Pilgrims carried with them on the Mayflower. Despite having ended up many miles from other European settlements, the Pilgrims hardly “started from scratch in a wilderness” as the “origin myth” would have us believe. Throughout southern New England, Native Tribes had repeatedly burned the underbrush, creating a park-like environment. After first landing at the tip of Cape Cod in what is now Provincetown, Massachusetts, the Pilgrims assembled a boat for exploring and began looking around for a site for their new home. They chose Plymouth perhaps because of it’s beautifully cleared fields, recently planted with corn, it’s sheltered harbor, and a brook of fresh water nearby. It was a great site for a town, because before the Plague of 1617, this had been the village site of the Patuxet Tribe. The new Plymouth colonists did not encounter a wilderness. In fact, in Three Visitors To Early Plymouth: Letters about the Pilgrim Settlement in New England During its First Seven Years by John Pory, Emmanuel Altham, and Isaack deRasieres, edited by Sydney V. James, Plymouth colonist Emmanuel Altham noted in a letter in 1622 that,

“In this bay wherein we live, in former time, hath lived about two thousand Indians.”

In addition, the colonists received help and support from sources not fully known by the majority of Americans today. In his sailor’s journal, written by a colonist on his second full day in Plymouth, Massachusetts, and published in the work done in 1901 by Azel Ames titled, The Mayflower and Her Log, July 15, 1620-May 6, 1621, Edward Winslow writes of he and a companion, saying,

“…we marched to the place where we had the corn formerly, which place we called Cornhill, and digged and found the rest, of which we were very glad. We also digged in a place a little further off, and found a bottle of oil. We went to another place which we had seen before, and digged, and found more corn, viz. Two or three baskets full of Indian wheat, and a bag of beans, with a good many of fair wheat ears. Whilst some of us were digging up this, some others found another heap of corn, which they digged up also, so as we had in all about ten bushels, which will serve us sufficiently for seed”…. “The next morning we followed certain beaten paths and tracks of the Indians into the woods, supposing they would have led us into some town, or houses”…. “When we had marched five or six miles into the woods and could find no signs of any people, we returned again another way, and as we came into the plain ground we found a place like a grave, but it was much bigger and longer than any we had yet seen. It was also covered with boards, so as we mused what it should be, and resolved to dig it up, where we found, first a mat, and under that a fair bow”….. “Also between the mats we found bowls, trays, dishes, and such like trinkets. At length we came to a fair new mat, and under that two bundles, the one bigger, the other less. We opened the greater and found in it a great quantity of fine and perfect red powder, and in it the bones and skull of a man”…. “We brought sundry of the prettiest things away with us, and covered the corpse up again. After this, we digged in sundry like places, but found no more corn, nor any thing else but graves.”

In Karen Ordahl Kupperman’s book titled, Settling with the Indians: The Meeting of English and Indian Cultures in America, 1580-1640, published in London by J. M. Dent in 1980, she states that the Pilgrims continued to rob graves for years. However, more help came to the Pilgrims from an even more unlikely source named Squanto, who was also known as Tisquantum. In the “origin myth,” Squanto was a solitary member of the Pautuxet tribe, part of the Wampanoag Federation of Tribes, who had supposedly learned English from fisherman, and as a “God sent savior”, taught the Pilgrims how to hunt and fish in the new wilderness, which helped them survive their first winter in New England. However, according to Sir Ferdinando Gorges, a leader of the Plymouth Company in England, around 1605 a British Captain stole Squanto from Massachusetts when he was still a boy, along with four members of the Penobscot Tribe, and took them to England. There Squanto spent nine years, three of them in the employ of Sir Ferdinando Gorges. After which, in 1614, Gorges arranged for Squanto to be returned to Massachusetts. ater in 1614, after skirmishing against, and then making peace with the Patuxet Tribe, John Smith returned to England, leaving a second ship to fish for Cod under the command of one Thomas Hunt. Luring Squanto and about twenty other Wampanoags on board, Hunt kidnapped them and then seized about seven other Natives on Cape Cod before sailing for Málaga, Spain. Once there, Hunt began selling his Native captives as slaves until some Catholic Priests intervened and redeemed the rest, including Squanto, in hopes of converting them to Christianity. Squanto’s movements are unclear for the next three years until 1617, by which time he had somehow managed to get to London. Living in the home of John Slany, the treasurer of the Newfoundland Company, Squanto became immersed in the English language and culture. Soon Squanto began to see in the colonial ambitions of John Slany and his associates, the means by which he could return home to Massachusetts. Squanto’s plans moved closer to realization when, on an expedition to Newfoundland, he became reacquainted with Thomas Dermer, an officer under John Smith in 1614. Like Smith, Dermer had left Patuxet before the fateful kidnapping. Thomas Dermer took Squanto back to his former employer, Sir Ferdinando Gorges, who was by then the most determined colonizer of New England. Although he had already failed in several attempts to use kidnapped Natives to advance his endeavors, Gorges was persuaded by Squanto’s evident knowledge of the region, his apparent standing among his people, and his professed loyalty. So with Thomas Dermer at the helm, Squanto finally sailed for Massachusetts in the spring of 1619. When Squanto set foot again in Massachusetts and walked to his home village of the Patuxet Tribe, he made the horrifying discovery that he was the sole member of his village left alive. All other Patuxet Natives having perished in the Plague epidemic two years earlier in 1617. By the winter of 1620, struggling to survive, half the unprepared Plymouth colonists succumbed to starvation and disease during the harsh winter. Finally in March of 1621, members of the Pokanoket and Nemasket tribe convinced Samoset, a visiting Abenaki with ties to English traders, to sound out the beleaguered colonists. Finding them receptive, Samoset returned a few days later with Squanto, whose knowledge of the English and their language exceeded his own. As translator, ambassador and technical advisor, Squanto was essential to the survival of the Plymouth Colony in it’s first two years. In the book edited by Samuel Morrison in 1981 titled, Of Plymouth Plantation: 1620-1647 the first Governor of Plymouth Colony, William Bradford, called Squanto,

“…a special instrument sent of God for our good beyond expectation. He directed us how to set our corn, where to take fish, and to procure other commodities, and was also our pilot to bring us to unknown places for our profit.”

Their “profit” was the primary reason most Plymouth colonists made the voyage. Contrary to the “origin myth”, religious freedom was only a secondary motive for the Plymouth colonists. Squanto was not the only advisor for the Pilgrims either. As critical as he was to the colonist’s fortunes, Squanto’s usefulness was limited because he had no power base among the remaining Wampanoag Tribes, or other local Native Tribes. In the summer of 1621 the colony invited a second Native, a man from the Pokanoket Tribe named Hobbamock, to live among them. Hobbamock stayed for several years serving as a guide and ambassador. In fact, Hobbamock helped the Plymouth colonists to set up fur trading posts at the mouth of the Penobscot and Kennebec rivers in Maine; along the Aptucxet River in Massachusetts; and along the Windsor River in Connecticut. All this background brings us to the Thanksgiving Celebration. However once again, contrary to popular opinion, the Plymouth colonists did not introduce the Fall Harvest Thanksgiving Celebration. Native Tribes in New England had observed autumnal harvest celebrations for centuries. However, in the Fall of 1621, the Governor of the Plymouth Colony, William Bradford, decided to have a harvest thanksgiving celebration of at the Plymouth Colony settlement. Gov. Bradford and other men started with games of marksmanship. Alarmed by the sound of gunfire, Massasoit, the Grand Sachem of the Wampanoag Federation of Tribes, with ninety other Wampanoag warriors, came to investigate. Seeing only a peaceful harvest celebration, they decided to stay after the Colonists assured them they were welcome. With many more to feed, some of the Wampanoag warriors left, but soon returned with five Deer to add to the feast. It is said that some of the food used for the shared celebration included lobster, clams, smoked fish, smoked eel, deer, turkey, duck, goose, corn, squash, and apple cider. The Wampanoag group remained at the Plymouth Colony settlement for three days, but the thanksgiving celebration continued for several more days after they left. When the next great wave of Puritans settled in the newly named Massachusetts Bay Colony in 1630, there was such a shortage of food, that the new Governor, John Winthrop, sent one of the ships back to England to purchase as much food as possible. When the ship returned in February 1631, Governor Winthrop ordered another day of Thanksgiving to be celebrated by all the settlements in the colony. The first such celebration to be held in the Massachusetts Bay Colony in ten years since 1621. Other than in Plymouth, Massachusetts, where they were held as a local custom every year from 1631 on, thanksgiving celebrations were held sporadically in the different European colonies in America during the 1600s and 1700s. However, during the American Revolution in the 1780s, the Continental Congress recommended that each of the colonies observe a day of thanksgiving every year. Later, when George Washington became President, he proclaimed November 26th to be a National Day of Thanksgiving. The custom fell into disuse in a short time, and the States that did observe an annual thanksgiving day celebration, did so on a day that best suited them. Although they all observed it in the Month of November. During the Civil War in 1863, when President Lincoln felt that the Union needed all the patriotism that such as observance might muster, he proclaimed Thanksgiving a National Holiday to be observed on the last Thursday in November. However, the Pilgrims and Plymouth Colony were not included in the celebrations at that time. It would not be until the 1890s that the Pilgrims were included in the celebration traditions. In fact, Americans did not even use the term “Pilgrim” until the 1870s. Lastly, because the Puritans had banned outright the Christmas Holiday in the 1640s, and the majority of settlers in New England refused to recognize or observe it as a Holiday for many years later, some historians believe that Thanksgiving became such an important holiday in the New England States, as an attempt to replace the Christmas Holiday. Although this may have been the case in the early years, both holidays became important to all New Englanders after Christmas became a legal holiday in the United States in 1856.

References:

Addison, Albert Christopher. 1911. The Romantic Story of the Mayflower Pilgrims. L. C. Page & Company: Boston, MA.

Ames, MD, Azel. 1901. The Mayflower and Her Log: July 15, 1620 – May 6, 1621. Houghton, Mifflin & Company: Boston, MA.

Anderson, Virginia Dejohn. 1993. Migrants and Motives: Religion and the Settlement of New England, 1630-1640 in Katz, ed. Colonial America. McGraw-Hill, Inc.: New York, NY.

Bercovitch, Sacvan. 1986. A Library of American Puritan Writings. Volume 9 – The Seventeenth Century. Ams Press, Inc.: New York, NY.

Bradford, William. Samuel Eliot Morrison, ed. 1981. Of Plymouth Plantation 1620-1647. McGraw-Hill: New York, NY.

Cook, Jeannine. ed. 1992. Columbus and the Land of Ayllón: The Exploration and Settlement of the Southeast. University of Georgia Press, Darien, GA.

Davis, William T. 1883. Ancient Landmarks of Plymouth. A. Williams and Company: Boston, MA.

Deetz, James. 1996. In Small Things Forgotten: An Archaeology of Early American Life. Anchor Books Doubleday: New York, NY.

Garvan, Anthony N. B. 1951. Architecture and Town Planning in Colonial Connecticut. Yale University Press: New Haven, CT.

Greene, Jack P. 1988. Pursuits of Happiness: The Social Development of Early Modern British Colonies and the Formation of American Culture. The University of North Carolina Press: Chapel Hill, NC.

Heath, Dwight B. 1963. Mourt’s Relation: A Journal of the Pilgrims at Plymouth. Corinth Books: New York, NY.

Hume, Ivor N. 1969. Historical Archaeology. Alfred A. Knopf: New York, NY.

Kupperman, Karen Ordahl. 1980. Settling with the Indians: The Meeting of English and Indian Cultures in America, 1580-1640, J. M. Dent: London. (reprinted 2000 as Indians and English: Facing Off in Early America. Cornell University Press)

Perkins, Frank H. 1947. Handbook of Old Burial Hill: Plymouth, Massachussetts. Rogers Print, Inc.: Plymouth, MA.

Pory, John, Emmanuel Altham, Isaack deRasieres, edited by Sydney V. James. 1963 (Reprint 1997). Three Visitors To Early Plymouth: Letters about the Pilgrim Settlement in New England During its First Seven Years. Applewood Books, Plymouth, MA.

Simmons, R. C. 1976. The American Colonies: From Settlement to Independence. W. W. Norton & Company: New York, NY.

Smith, John. 1971. Advertisements for the Planters of New England. Theatrum Orbis Terrarum Ltd.: Amsterdam.

Young, Alexander. 1841. Chronicles of the Pilgrim Fathers of the Colony of Plymouth: from 1602 to 1625. C. C. Little and J. Brown: Boston, MA.

Teltsch, Kathleen. 1990. Scholars and Descendants Uncover Hidden Legacy of Jews in Southwest in New York Times (Sunday, 11 Nov 1990, p. 30), New York, NY.

Winthrop, Robert Charles. ed. 1864-1867 (Reprint 1971). Life and Letters of John Winthrop. Vols. 1-2, Boston, MA.

Ontario chiefs demand feds abandon Education Act

HUNDREDS OF AMERICAN INDIANS TO GATHER ON ALCATRAZ ISLAND FOR (UN)THANKSGIVING DAY SUNRISE CEREMONY

America’s native prisoners of war

No Thanks to Thanksgiving

Help a father and daughter battle against cancer

Questions and answers about Thailand’s latest round of political protests

HMONG NEW YEAR KICK-OFF!

Hmong Cultural Center Receives Multi-Year Grant from the Henry Luce Foundation to Support the Hmong Resource Center Library

Supporting Indigenous Sovereignty and Self-Determination

FNX | First Nations Experience Television Network on WYCC PBS Chicago

Global war against indigenous intensifying as imperialists scramble for land and resources

Asian origins of native American dogs confirmed

Skeletal remains of 24,000-year-old boy raise new questions about first Americans

Native Americans and Northern Europeans more closely related than previously thought

Ancient Siberian genome reveals genetic origins of Native Americans

VIDEO: Indigenous Language Dying

Human Journey

“New World” Film Revives Extinct Native American Tongue

Continents influenced ancient human migration, spread of technology

Native American travels across U.S. photographing citizens of tribal nations

Last Lakota Code Talker Dies at 86

Siberian, Native American Languages Linked — A First

Ancient, modern DNA tell story of first humans in the Americas

‘First Nations’ conference a stepping stone

“I saw Hmong and Native Americans have some similar artwork, which I thought that was kind of surprising.”

“Largest mass hanging in United States history”

The Truth About Hair and Why Indians Would Keep Their Hair Long

The ABCs of Hmong

The New Manifest Destiny: A Brief Political History of the Idle No More Movement

UN urges Canada to end mistreatment of Aboriginal peoples (Video)

Hmong Life and Background

Ancient DNA Links Native Americans With Europe

The Last King Of Vietnam Was A Hmong?

The meaning of Hmong…

hmongviking – I believe we are like the Native Americans, they call us Indians and Miao, even if we are not.

Daughter of Martin Luther King Jr. calls for end of economic injustice against First Nations

Which wolf will you feed?

Yin and Yang

A Native American Approach to Teaching and Learning

A Comparison Between Chinese Taoism and Native American Religious Tradition

The Last World: The Taoist and Native American Philosophies as a Way of Living in Harmony with Nature

Thousands displaced by Guatemala’s land grabs

Check the tag on that “Indian” story.

A Tibetan Shaman Extraction And Purification Ceremony

50 Million Indigenous people of the Americas

I seen this online, I wonder what they were thinking when they made those terms. They are somewhat pronounced similar too.
—————
During the Spanish (Mestizo), Portuguese (Mestiço), and French (Metis) colonization of the Americas it came to mean the offspring of a European and Amerindian only.

Métis(f. “métisse”, m. plural “métis”, f. plural “métisses): The word “Métis” comes from the Latin “Miscere” meaning “To Mix” and was originally used to describe the offspring of the Native Mothers and the French Fathers.

Defination: half-caste, half-breed, half-blood; crossbred, mixed.

Mestizo(pl. mes·ti·zos or mes·ti·zoes): a Spanish term that was formerly used in the Spanish Empire to designate people of mixed European (Spaniard) and Amerindian ancestry living in the region of Latin America. The word originated from the Romance language / Latin word Mixticius, meaning “mixed”.
Defination: half-breed · half-caste, half blood, crossbred, mixed.

Mestiço(pl. mes-ti-cos): In colonial Brazil, the Portuguese-speaking part of Latin America, Mestiço initially was used to refer to a person with both European and Native South American Amerindian blood only. The word ”Mestiço” comes from the Latin word ”Mixticius” meaning ”mixed”

Defination: half-breed · half-caste, half blood, crossbred, mixed.

The Hmong Hill Tribe : Silver Jewelry & Embroidery

STAR ANCESTORS: Extraterrestrial Contact in the Native American Tradition

The Journey of Hmong Immigrants

Immigrants to America from Siberia

DNA analysis on Native Americans

DNA & THE PEOPLING OF SIBERIA

Native Americans traveled to North American continent in three waves: Journal ‘Nature’ DNA study

Tracing Human History Through Genetic Mutations

Native Americans

The Yeniseian people

DNA evidence for Atlantis

Penn Research Finds Genetic Link Between Native Americans, Russian Region

Hmong americans

Hmong History FAQ

kaiyu – I took a class in Native Americans, and Native American culture and way of life is pretty similar to Hmong culture.

Hmong American History Timeline

Are Filipinos related to Native Americans?

DARTHSITH – Filipinos are basically a type of Native American like the Aztecs, Toltecs, Apache, Navaho.

Siberian-Mongolian Heritage of the Americas

pinguin – A fast-dying language in remote central Siberia shares a mother tongue with dozens of Native American languages spoken thousands of miles away, new research confirms.

Janna Vang

It wasnt until a couple of days ago that I looked in the mirror and saw what ppl have been seeing in me my whole life growing up…HOLY CRAP I REALLY DONT LOOK HMONG!!! lol.

Janna Vang – LOL I usually get mistaken for a mix of white and hmong, or hispanic, or just white, lol.

Hispanics Identifying Themselves as Indians

Culture Clash: The Puritans and the Native Americans

Native Americans and Christianity

Blood & Asia

reocurringdream – In Korean we call our peoples Dong-Yi despite where we reside, but its a word that signifies our origin/bloodlines, so Koreans would come here and recognize Native Americans as Dong-Yi people rather than merely by nation or geography.

Lariiah Northwind

Do I look Asian?

Mary Wesaquate – most native girls, do get mistaken as asian.

“New Proofs from The Experts: Native Americans are the Descendants of Shang Dynasty Chinese”

calcoastseeker – So, Native Americans are the descendants of Shang dynasty Chinese?

Te Shang Dynasty

Visual Questions – 2. What are some of the similarities between the people of the Shang dynasty and Native Americans?

Shang Dynasty (商朝) Summery of Reign

Shang Dynasty 1766 BC to 1121 BC – Their ancestry can be traced in the features and DNA make up of native American people of today.

Native Americans and the Ancient Chinese – A DNA Connection

“Although there are literally hundreds of ideas, perhaps the most accepted Native American origin theory indicates that these tribal groups began to cross the Bering land bridge from Asia to North America around 40,000 years ago.”

DNA links Native Americans to China

“Washington – Present-day Asians and Native Americans are descended from a group of people who were already in China 40 000 years ago, according to an analysis of fossil DNA published this week.”

Indigenous Issues

People gain their identities through a relationship with their land and through a relationship with their sacred cultural traditions. When you take a people’s land and traditions you prevent identity formation for an entire nation. Someone who takes on another identity is cultural appropriation – but theft of land and traditions is identity loss for an entire nation. In this way the worse form of cultural appropriation is land and sacred traditions. That said, a non-indigenous artist who has appropriated sacred knowledge will argue identity theft is the worst form of cultural appropriation simply because their mind can’t deal with what they did. This definition of cultural appropriation, though, does not lie in the mind of the person/s who took something that is not theirs.

LINKS/SIMILARITIES BETWEEN TIBETAN AND NATIVE AMERICAN GROUPS.

Tibetan Buddhists And Native Americans Find Common Ground In Montana

“Though Native Americans see the land as sacred to their own history, the Buddhists and Native Americans have discovered that they have a similar history and share beliefs and perspectives on world events.”

Legislature Honors Hmong-American Vietnam Veterans

COMMUNITY GARDENS AND NATURAL RESOURCES

“The interrelationship that Hmong and Native American have in commons.”

Hmong talk

Mother of 2 and No More – I’ve been mistaken for Hawaiian and Native American. One guy asked me, “What tribe?” At first I thought he was referring to the Hmong “tribes” but then realized he meant Indian tribes.

A relative from the Tianyuan Cave: Humans living 40,000 years ago likely related to many present-day Asians and Native Americans

Re-Thinking Hmong History: Are Hmong and Miao the Same People?

“Let me draw a parallel example to make this point. When the Europeans came to the new world, they called everyone they saw an Indian. Does that mean that all the people in the new world were the same people? Obviously not; the people the Europeans called Indians were different people. They were Iroquois, Navajo, Hopi, etc. The same would hold true for the people the Han Chinese called Miao. Within the group of people that the Han Chinese called Miao, obviously there were the Hmong and others.”

Miao People — Horse Cart

Ntsej Fam Yaj – Miao is just a Chinese label, like Indian is to Native Americans.

Shang Dynasty and the Chu Warring State

“We Hmong used the word Man to categorized other groups like the Austronesian and Pacific Islanders as well as Native Americans.”

Origin of Amur River Valley Civilization Explored

“More evidence supporting the theory is that the physical looks of American Indian and Maya peoples were quite similar to early Asians.”

HMONG SHAMANISM

Religious Beliefs. The Hmong otherworld is closely modeled on the Chinese otherworld, which represents an inversion of the classical Chinese bureaucracy. In former times, it is believed, humans and spirits could meet and talk with one another. Now that the material world of light and the spiritual world of darkness have become separated, particular techniques of communication with the otherworld are required. These techniques form the basis of Hmong religion, and are divided into domestic worship and shamanism.

Religious Practitioners. Every male head of a household practices the domestic worship of ancestral spirits and household gods represented at different sites in the architecture of the Hmong house. Particular rituals must be performed by him in honor of these spirits, most during the New Year celebrations. Whereas domestic worship is conducted for the benefit of individual households by their heads, shamanism is only practiced by a few men in each lineage, and is for the benefit of others since its primary purpose is to cure illness. Illness is often diagnosed by the shaman as the result of soul loss; his task is to recall the wandering soul and so restore health.

Supernaturals. The two malevolent Lords of the otherworld are Ntxwj Nyug and Nyuj Vaj Tuam Teem. Saub is a kindly deity who periodically comes to the rescue of humanity, and Siv Yis was the first shaman, to whom Saub entrusted some of his healing powers to protect humankind from the diseases with which Ntxwj Nyug afflicted them. Household and ancestral spirits ( dab ) are distinguished from the tutelary spirits of the shaman ( neeb ). Within the household there are special altars to the spirits of wealth and sickness, of the bedroom, the front door, the loft, the house post, and the two hearths.

Ceremonies. The major calendrical ceremony is New Year, when the household spirits are renewed, the ancestral spirits honored, and the shamanic spirits dispatched temporarily to the otherworld. New clothes are donned, parties of villagers visit other villages, antiphonal songs are sung by courting couples, and courting games of catch are played. Each household sacrifices domestic animals and holds feasts. Weddings are also celebrated with great display.

Arts. Needlework, embroidery, and the chanting of love songs are particularly esteemed artistic skills. The playing of the reed pipes, the notes of which are said to express the entirety of Hmong customs, is an art that takes many years to acquire. New dances, song forms, and pictorial arts have appeared in the context of the refugee camps.

Medicine. Herbal medicine is a specialty of many women who maintain special altars to the spirits of medicine. Forms of massage and magical therapy are also used. Shamanism remains the primary medical and therapeutic technique, although modern medicines are employed extensively.

Death and Afterlife. The ritual specialist at death is not necessarily a shaman, whose business is to preserve life. The purpose of the funeral and mortuary rites is to ensure the safe dispatch of the reincarnating soul to the otherworld. Funerals last a minimum of three days, attended by all local male kin within the household of the deceased. The reed pipes are played each day and a special song is sung to guide the reincarnating soul on its journey. Cattle must be slaughtered. The corpse of the deceased is inhumed in a geomantically selected site. On the third day after burial the grave is renovated, and a special propitiatory ritual is performed thirteen days after death for the ancestral soul, which will protect the household. A final memorial service to release the reincarnating soul, held a year after death, is somewhat similar to the funeral; and some years after death, in the case of severe illness or misfortune, a special propitiatory ritual may be performed for the same spirit.
On the way back to the village of its ancestors, the reincarnating soul must collect its “coat,” or placenta, buried beneath the floor of the house. The dangers and pitfalls of this journey are pictured in the poetic geography of the funeral song, which parallels the long historical journey of the Hmong from a country probably to the north of China. The song describes the creation of the first couple, the deluge, and the first drought, and represents a historical journey back to the origins of humanity, to which the deceased must return before being reborn.

Read more: Religion and expressive culture – Hmong http://www.everyculture.com/East-Southeast-Asia/Hmong-Religion-and-Expressive-Culture.html_ixzz1YpeU586O

Indigenous peoples of China

“Two terms, Miao and Hmong, are both currently used to refer to one of the aboriginal peoples of China. They live mainly in southern China, in the provinces of Guizhou, Hunan, Yunnan, Sichuan, Guangxi and Hubei.According to the 1989 census, their number in China was estimated to be about 7 million. Outside China they live in Thailand, Laos, Vietnam and Burma, due to migrations starting in the 18th century, and also in the United States, French Guyana and Australia, as a result of recent migrations in the aftermath of the Indochinese wars. Altogether there are approximately 8 million speakers of the language. This language, which consists of 30-40 mutually unintelligible dialects, belongs, together with the Bunu language, to the Miao branch of the Miao-Yao (Hmong-Mien) language family.

With a population of more than seven million, the Miao people form one of the largest ethnic minorities in southwest China. They are mainly distributed across Guizhou, Yunnan, Hunan and Sichuan provinces and Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, and a small number live on Hainan Island in Guangdong Province and in southwest Hubei Province. Most of them live in tightly-knit communities, with a few living in areas inhabited by several other ethnic groups.”

Chinese Prehistory — Political, Social, Cultural, Historical Analysis Of China

Excavations Of Totem Cultures – (Some purported DNA analysis led to a conclusion that about 10 hunters, with 3-4 males, followed reindeers across the Bering land-bridge to American continent by taking advantage of the window of opportunity between the last two glaciers.)

Cultural resistance, Hmong, China

“Later on, the book establishes and praises the bravery, independence and preservation of culture of Hmong people by describing their upper-handness in the Chinese-Hmong dichotomy, a rather relatable story to the one of Americans and the Native Americans.”

Hmong Cultural Profile

Country of Origin – The Hmong people relocated throughout their history, maintaining a strong sense of cultural identity and independence. Evidence suggests the Hmong lived in Siberia as similarities are seen between the Hmong and Siberian shaman practices. Chinese text suggests the Hmong originated in 2300 B.C. E. in northern central Asia, the area of present day Mongolia. Over centuries, people migrated south into Tibet and China, in the provinces of Yunnan, Guizhou, Sichuan, and Hunan. For several thousand years, the Hmong lived relatively independently while paying tribute to the Chinese government. However, under the oppression of the armies of the last dynasty in China, the Hmong rose in rebellion. In the 1800s, faced with political persecution, depleted soil fertility and increasing population pressure, some Hmong migrated into Southeast Asia. They settled in the mountains of northern Burma, Thailand, Laos, and Vietnam. After the 1975 communist takeover in Laos, Hmong soldiers and family fled Laos to refugee camps in Thailand. Some Hmong remained in the Thai camps, while many resettled in other parts of the world. The worldwide Hmong population is approximately 6,000,000 in China where the Hmong are called Miao; 788,000 in Vietnam; 315,000 in Laos; 124,000 in Thailand; 2-3,000 in Burma; 250,000 in the United States; 8,000 in France; and 1,800 in Australia. The majority of Hmong living in the United States today are those who came directly from Laos or via Thai refugee camps. (Culhane-Pera, Vawter, Xiong, Babitt and Solberg, 2003) (Lee and Pfeifer, 2005)

The Siberian Origins of Native Americans

“Virtually all scholars agree that the aboriginal populations living in North, Central and South America at the time of Columbus’ voyages originated from small groups of prehistoric immigrants from North Asia. No sober anthropologist would defend the notion that Pre-Columbian Native Americans sailed across the Atlantic from Europe or Africa or that Native Americans have lived in the Western Hemisphere from time immemorial.

There is less agreement, however, regarding the time of the first migration across the Bering Strait into North America. And there is less agreement still on the number of separate migrations. Did the first migrants arrive tens of thousands of years ago, before the onset of the last Pleistocene cold phase 25,000 years ago? Are all Native Americans descended from one immigrant group or many? And if there were more than one migration, then exactly how many separate migrations took place?

The most likely answer to these questions is that the first people to cross the Bering Strait into Alaska did so toward the end of the last Ice Age, about 14,000 years ago. Also, there is mounting evidence that this first crossing represented only one of at least three distinct migrations from Asia into North America.”

Diaspora and the Predicament of Origins: Interrogating Hmong Postcolonial History and Identity

Abstract – This paper examines two basic issues that have been of major concern to the Hmong in the diaspora: (1). What is their historical and geographic origin; and (2) are the Hmong part of the Miao nationality in China, and should they accept being known under this generic name? There have been many theories about where the Hmong originally came from, ranging from Mesopotamia in the Middle East during Biblical times, the North Pole, Siberia, to Mongolia and China. This paper consolidates these many propositions with their supporting evidence, and draws its own surprising conclusion as to the real location of the original homeland of the Hmong. Depending on what they regard as their origin and which history they wish to be aligned with, the Hmong may have to reconsider being known as Miao or Meo, a name which most have vehemently rejected because of its derogatory connotation, especially among the more politically conscious Hmong now living in Western countries.

First Explorers: The Siberia-Native American Connection

“When early, intrepid European explorers first began trekking through the New World in the late 1400s, they were awed by the strikingly different cultures they encountered. But they also came to notice something else: remarkable physical similarities between the Asian peoples they had seen during their many travels and these new, soon-to-be-known-as “Native Americans.”

Now, some genetic evidence is showing these observant, long-ago explorers weren’t too far off the mark. DNA analysis of ethnic groups living in the Altay Mountains of southern Siberia have revealed a unique genetic mutation that also occurs in modern-day northern Native Americans.

So while an Asian-Native American biological connection has long been suspected, this could be the first hard evidence we have that pinpoints where our country’s indigenous peoples originated, suggesting their true genetic “homeland.””

Time To Recognize National Sovereignty, Human Rights Of Native Indians

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