Native American RPS4Y-T haplogroup: Eastern Siberian, Kamchatka

These are the Kamchatka also known as the Chukchi. Here is what an article said about the Kamchatka.

The Dual Origin and Siberian Affinities of Native American Y Chromosomes

“Moreover, our data demonstrate that the Native American RPS4Y-T haplogroup originated in the eastern Siberian populations of Kamchatka and the Lower Amur River basin.”

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC384887/

Now look at the Kamchatka (Chukchi) clothing and then look at their facial features.

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AKmPUvtC1Ms

The Chukchi People (Habitants of Ice)

The Dual Origin and Siberian Affinities of Native American Y Chromosomes

Discussion

The prevalence of the distinctive Y-chromosome M3 lineage in Native Americans that is further defined by a specific DYS19 allele and alphoid repeat variant initially led to the suggestion that a single patrilineal migration gave rise to all of the linguistically diverse Native American populations (Pena et al. 1995; Santos et al. 1996; Underhill et al. 1996; Bianchi et al. 19971998). The observation that most of the non-M3 Y chromosomes in five Colombian populations were similar to each other suggested that there was a second Native American founder Y chromosome (Ruiz-Linares et al. 1999) but was still consistent with there having been a single migration.

A subsequent study of six Y-chromosome loci (Santos et al. 1999) suggested a single origin for most Native American Y chromosomes, traced through northeastern Siberia back to Middle Siberia, along with a possible second entry from Beringia, a scenario reminiscent of several mtDNA studies (Forster et al. 1996; Bonatto and Salzano 1997). The subsequent discovery of haplogroup RPS4Y-T in several northern Amerind and Na-Dene populations, along with its increased frequency around Lake Baikal and Mongolia, supported the theory of two independent migratory events that gave rise to present-day Native American Y chromosomes (Karafet et al. 1999)

Our results support and extend the hypothesis of at least two major male migrations from Asia to the Americas. The first migration brought haplogroup M3 Y chromosomes from Chukotka to the Americas. The founder haplotype of this lineage, M3(10-11-11-10), was derived from the southern Middle Siberian haplotype M45(10-11-11-10) during the latter’s migration through Chukotka and across the Bering Land Bridge down into North, Central, and South America. The southern Middle Siberian origin of this initial migration is further supported by the presence of M45(10-11-11-10) and of the closely related haplotype M45(10-11-10-10) in the Tuvan population. This population currently lives near the geographic center of Asia, in the region of arid steppes between Mongolia and the Sayan Mountains. Thus, the first Siberian migration into the Americas arose in southern Middle Siberia.

The Tuvans and three other populations from the Upper Yenisey region west of Lake Baikal (the Tofalars, Buryats, and Yenisey Evenks) also harbored the ancestral Tat-C haplotypes. Thus, the Tuvans contain remnants of the source of both major male expansions from central Asia into Siberia. The earlier M45 migration, which acquired the M3 variant in northeastern Siberia, moved into the Americas. The later Tat-C migration reached the northeast Siberian coast but did not enter the Americas. Both migrations also moved westward into Europe. Indeed, the dispersal of the Tat-C haplogroup most likely accounts for the clustering of Y chromosomes from certain Middle Siberian populations with those of Europeans rather than with those of other Siberians or East Asians (Santos et al. 1999).

The M45 haplogroup is divided into two subhaplogroups, M45a from Middle Siberia and M45b from eastern Siberia. These two lineages are distinguished by the M173 variant in the eastern Siberian M45b lineage as well as by different microsatellite alleles. The M45a subhaplogroup connects Middle Siberians with the North, Central, and South American Amerinds. The M45b/M173 subhaplogroup connects eastern Siberians with the North and Central American Na-Dene and surrounding Amerinds (fig. 3).

The distinctive form, frequency, and distribution of the M45b subhaplogroup confirms that two separate migrations occurred. The M173 marker is only found in the M45 Y chromosomes of the eastern Siberians and North and Central American natives and not in those of the Middle Siberians or South Americans. Furthermore, three of the distinct North and Central American M45 haplotypes (M45[*,M173][11-11-11-11] and M45*[12-11-11-11]) are only shared with the populations of the Lower Amur and the Sea of Okhotsk region (fig. 3).

This second Siberian migration also corresponds with the distribution of the S4Y-T macrohaplogroup (Karafet et al. 1999). In our study, the S4Y-T haplogroup marker, the RPS4Y-T, was detected in a single Navajo, but it had previously been seen in additional northern Amerind and Na-Dene Native Americans (Bergen et al. 1999; Karafet et al. 1999). Moreover, our data demonstrate that the Native American RPS4Y-T haplogroup originated in the eastern Siberian populations of Kamchatka and the Lower Amur River basin. The extended RPS4Y-T haplotype of our Navajo sample differs from a Lower Amur RPS4Y-T haplotype by just one mutational step but differs from those of southern Middle Siberia by three steps. Thus, the Native American RPS4Y-T Y chromosomes also came from eastern Siberia, along with the M45b chromosomes. These two haplogroups provide compelling evidence that there was a second male migration to North America from the eastern Siberian regions of Kamchatka and the Lower Amur River. This eastern Siberian RPS4Y-T lineage can be traced back to East Asia, where highly diversified RPS4Y-T haplotypes have been found (B. Su and L. Jin, unpublished data).

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC384887/

Now look at the Kamchatka (Chukchi) clothing and then look at their facial features.

Kamchatka x Etnic [part 6]

2 Comments
  1. Iam Kongolia 6 years ago

    Interesting. The way they dance is not just by their moment but breath–reminds me of a qigong book I read on about ancient qigong exercise.

  2. Iam Kongolia 6 years ago

    Not just by their movement*

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